Macs in Chemistry

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2007 Nobel Prizes

The 2007 Nobel prize for chemistry goes to Gerhard Ertl for his studies of chemical processes on solid surfaces.

The Nobel Prize in chemistry for 2007 is awarded to Gerhard Ertl for his thorough studies of
fundamental molecular processes at the gas-solid interface. When a small molecule hits a solid surface from a gas phase there are a number of possible outcomes. The molecule may simply either bounce back or be adsorbed. It is the latter case that carries the most interesting possibilities.

Two European scientists France's Albert Fert and Germany's Peter Gruenberg have won the
2007 Nobel Prize in physics for their discoveries of the phenomenon giant magnetoresistance (MR), which spurred some of computing's most astonishing developments, from video-playing handheld devices to personal computers and iPods whose storage capacity now seems unlimited.

The
phenomenon called magnetoresistance (MR) is the change of resistance of a conductor when it is placed in an external magnetic field. For ferromagnets like iron, cobalt and nickel this property will also depend on the direction of the external field relative to the direction of the current through the magnet. Exactly 150 years ago W. Thomson (Lord Kelvin) measured the behaviour of the resistance of iron and nickel in the presence of a magnetic field.

The
2007 Nobel prize for medicine goes to Mario R. Capecchi, Sir Martin J. Evans, and Oliver Smithies for their discoveries of principles for introducing specific gene modifications in mice by the use of embryonic stem cells.

This year's Nobel Laureates have made a series of ground-breaking discoveries concerning embryonic stem cells and DNA recombination in mammals. Their discoveries led to the creation of an immensely powerful technology referred to as gene targeting in mice. It is now being applied to virtually all areas of biomedicine – from basic research to the development of new therapies
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